Rare Gastroenterology News

Disease Profile

Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis

Prevalence
Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

Unknown

Age of onset

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ICD-10

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Inheritance

Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease

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Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype

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X-linked
dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.

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X-linked
recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder

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Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

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Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.

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Not applicable

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Other names (AKA)

Glomerulonephritis mesangial proliferative; Mesangial proliferative GN; Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis

Summary

Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) is a condition that affects the kidneys. Many experts consider it a variant of minimal change disease, but some experts believe it is a separate condition. It may present with nephrotic syndrome, which is a group of symptoms that include protein in the urine (proteinuria), low blood protein levels, high cholesterol levels, high triglyceride levels, and swelling. It can also present with blood in the urine (hematuria).[1] MPGN is characterized by an increased number of mesangial cells in the glomeruli in the kidneys and damage to the glomeruli. Glomeruli are the structures that help filter wastes and fluids. MPGN may occur in several renal diseases such as IgA nephropathy (commonly), IgM nephropathy, lupus nephritis, and C1q nephropathy.[2] However, in some cases, the underlying cause of MPGN remains unclear.[3] Treatment may depend on the cause (if known) and may include steroids, mycophenolate mofetil, and/or cyclophosphamide, and other therapies to treat specific symptoms.[4] Most people with MPGN have a good prognosis, but some may develop chronic kidney disease, which can progress to end stage renal failure.[1][2]

Cause

Most cases of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) are associated with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). In general, IgAN has been known to be the most common type of glomerulonephritis in most countries.[2]

Mesangial cell proliferation, which characterizes MPGN, is a common feature of various kidney disorders. It may be seen in several diseases in addition to IgAN, including IgM nephropathy (IgMN), lupus nephritis (caused by lupus), Alport’s syndrome, and post infectious glomerulonephritis.[2]

In some cases, the underlying cause of MPGN is unclear.[3]

Organizations

Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Organizations Providing General Support

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      In-Depth Information

      • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.

        References

        1. Meyrier, A and Appel GB. Minimal change variants: Mesangial proliferation; IgM nephropathy; C1q nephropathy. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate; January, 2016; https://www.uptodate.com/contents/minimal-change-variants-mesangial-proliferation-igm-nephropathy-c1q-nephropathy.
        2. Mokhtar GA, Jalalah S, Sultana S. Pathological patterns of mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis seen at a tertiary care center. J Nephropharmacol. July 1, 2014; 3(2):33-37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5297525/.
        3. Zhao JJ, Wang XB, Luan Y, Liu JL, Liu L, Jia HY. Association of human leukocyte antigen gene polymorphism and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis in a large population-based study. Biomed Rep. September, 2013; 1(5):751-756. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3917055/.
        4. Salifu MO. Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis. Medscape Reference. April 28, 2015; https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/239646-overview.
        5. IgA Nephropathy. NIDDK. November, 2015; https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/iga-nephropathy.

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