Rare Gastroenterology News

Disease Profile

FOXG1 syndrome

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

FOXG1-related disorder


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases


FOXG1 syndrome is a neurological condition characterized by impaired development and structural brain abnormalities. Features vary from case to case, and may include an unusually small head size (microcephaly), a specific pattern of brain development (including partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum, reduced folds on the surface of the brain, and reduced white matter), intellectual disability, abnormal or involuntary movements, feeding problems, sleep disturbances, seizures, irritability and excessive crying, and limited communication and social skills. Both males and females may be affected. The condition is caused by changes involving the FOXG1 gene. In some cases, there are mutations within the gene; in others, there is a deletion of genetic material from the region of the long (q) arm of chromosome 14 where the gene is located. FOXG1 syndrome is considered an autosomal dominant condition because one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.[1] While it is possible for parents to be carriers, most cases result from new mutations.[2][3]


Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.


    Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

    Organizations Supporting this Disease

      Learn more

      These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

      Where to Start

        In-Depth Information

        • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
        • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss FOXG1 syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


          1. FOXG1 syndrome. Genetics Home Reference (GHR). December 2013; https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/foxg1-syndrome. Accessed 11/5/2015.
          2. About FOXG1. International FOXG1 Foundation. https://www.foxg1.com/about-foxg1.html. Accessed 11/5/2015.
          3. RETT Syndrome, Congenital Variant. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). November 2014; https://www.omim.org/entry/613454. Accessed 11/5/2015.