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Disease Profile

Cyprus facial neuromusculoskeletal syndrome

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

<1 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

Unusual facial appearance, skeletal deformities, and musculoskeletal and sensory defects


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Nervous System Diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 2674

Cyprus facial-neuromusculoskeletal syndrome is an exceedingly rare, genetic malformation syndrome characterized by a striking facial appearance, variable skeletal deformities, and neurological defects.

The syndrome has been described in a single Greek Cypriot family, over three generations. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1992.

Clinical description
Affected individuals have a striking facial appearance (described as Mephistophelian) and variable skeletal deformities and neuromuscular abnormalities. The facial appearance consists of a thickened, ridged, triangular skin fold extending from the glabella to the anterior fontanel, elevation of the medial portion of the eyebrows bilaterally, hypertelorism, low-set ears, posteriorly rotated ears and widow's peak. Musculoskeletal features may coexist and include congenital kyphoscoliosis, hip dislocation, congenital talipes equinovarus and arthrogryposis. Neurological and musculoskeletal defects are severe and incapacitating in some affected family members, while all have normal intelligence. Other manifestations include restricted joint stiffness, ankyloses, ptosis, and cataracts.

The cause of this syndrome is not known.

Genetic counseling
This condition is likely to be autosomal dominant.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Cyprus facial neuromusculoskeletal syndrome. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.