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Disease Profile


Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset






Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable



The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 1293

Brachyolmia is a rare, clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of bone disorders characterized by short trunk, mild short stature, scoliosis and generalized platyspondyly without significant abnormalities in the long bones.

The prevalence of brachyolmia is not known, but the disorder is probably under-recognized. Fewer than 100 cases have been reported to date. Cases have been reported in various ethnic groups. However, most cases with the Hobaek/Toledo type reported so far were of Turkish origin.

Clinical description
Four types of brachyolmia have been described: autosomal recessive brachyolmia, Hobaek/Toledo type, autosomal recessive brachyolmia-amelogenesis imperfecta syndrome, autosomal dominant brachyolmia, and autosomal recessive brachyolmia, Maroteaux type (see these terms). The age of onset is generally in childhood with short stature becoming more evident with age. The clinical manifestations are generally mild to moderate, with minor physical functional repercussions. Some patients report non-specific back pain. The disorder is not associated with intellectual disability. AR brachyolmia, Hobaek/Toledo type is characterized by short-trunked short stature with platyspondyly and scoliosis. Corneal opacities and precocious calcification of costal cartilage occur in rare cases. In AR brachyolmia-amelogenesis imperfecta syndrome, short-trunked short stature is associated with platyspondyly and enamel abnormalities. AD brachyolmia is a more severe form with significant short-trunked short stature, platyspondyly and kyphoscoliosis. Lastly, presumably autosomal recessive brachyolmia, Maroteaux type is a vague entity that has not been well characterized but may involve short trunk/short stature, generalized platyspondyly and rounding vertebral bodies.

Mutations in the PAPSS2 gene (10q24) have been found in patients with AR brachyolmia, Hobaek/Toledo type, and in the TRPV4 gene (12q24.1) in patients with AD brachyolmia. Precise pathogenesis is not well understood.

Diagnostic methods
Clinical and radiological findings are used to diagnose brachyolmia. Molecular genetic testing can also be used to confirm the diagnosis.

Differential diagnosis
The differential diagnosis includes other genetic skeletal dysplasia syndromes, particularly mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, including mild type 2 collagenopathy and mild Morquio disease (see this term).

Antenatal diagnosis
Prenatal diagnosis is available on molecular grounds, when a mutation (or mutations) was ascertained in a familial case.

Genetic counseling
Brachyolmia follows either an autosomal recessive or rarely an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Genetic counseling based on the mode of inheritance should be provided to affected families.

Management and treatment
No specific treatment is currently available for this disease.

The prognosis for patients with brachyolmia is generally very good.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Mild short stature
Short thorax
Shorter than typical length between neck and abdomen


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

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    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
    • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
    • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Brachyolmia. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.